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Osip Aksenov
Osip Aksenov

Proportional Controller Pdf

In practical terms, PID automatically applies an accurate and responsive correction to a control function. An everyday example is the cruise control on a car, where ascending a hill would lower speed if constant engine power were applied. The controller's PID algorithm restores the measured speed to the desired speed with minimal delay and overshoot by increasing the power output of the engine in a controlled manner.

proportional controller pdf


The first theoretical analysis and practical application of PID was in the field of automatic steering systems for ships, developed from the early 1920s onwards. It was then used for automatic process control in the manufacturing industry, where it was widely implemented in pneumatic and then electronic controllers. Today the PID concept is used universally in applications requiring accurate and optimized automatic control.

where K p \displaystyle K_\textp , K i \displaystyle K_\texti , and K d \displaystyle K_\textd , all non-negative, denote the coefficients for the proportional, integral, and derivative terms respectively (sometimes denoted P, I, and D).

In the standard form of the equation (see later in article), K i \displaystyle K_\texti and K d \displaystyle K_\textd are respectively replaced by K p / T i \displaystyle K_\textp/T_\texti and K p T d \displaystyle K_\textpT_\textd ; the advantage of this being that T i \displaystyle T_\texti and T d \displaystyle T_\textd have some understandable physical meaning, as they represent an integration time and a derivative time respectively. K p T d \displaystyle K_\textpT_\textd is the time constant with which the controller will attempt to approach the set point. K p / T i \displaystyle K_\textp/T_\texti determines how long the controller will tolerate the output being consistently above or below the set point.

Although a PID controller has three control terms, some applications need only one or two terms to provide appropriate control. This is achieved by setting the unused parameters to zero and is called a PI, PD, P or I controller in the absence of the other control actions. PI controllers are fairly common in applications where derivative action would be sensitive to measurement noise, but the integral term is often needed for the system to reach its target value.

Continuous control, before PID controllers were fully understood and implemented, has one of its origins in the centrifugal governor, which uses rotating weights to control a process. This was invented by Christiaan Huygens in the 17th century to regulate the gap between millstones in windmills depending on the speed of rotation, and thereby compensate for the variable speed of grain feed.[2][3]

Rotating-governor speed control, however, was still variable under conditions of varying load, where the shortcoming of what is now known as proportional control alone was evident. The error between the desired speed and the actual speed would increase with increasing load. In the 19th century, the theoretical basis for the operation of governors was first described by James Clerk Maxwell in 1868 in his now-famous paper On Governors. He explored the mathematical basis for control stability, and progressed a good way towards a solution, but made an appeal for mathematicians to examine the problem.[5][4] The problem was examined further in 1874 by Edward Routh, Charles Sturm, and in 1895, Adolf Hurwitz, all of whom contributed to the establishment of control stability criteria.[4]In subsequent applications, speed governors were further refined, notably by American scientist Willard Gibbs, who in 1872 theoretically analyzed Watt's conical pendulum governor.

About this time, the invention of the Whitehead torpedo posed a control problem that required accurate control of the running depth. Use of a depth pressure sensor alone proved inadequate, and a pendulum that measured the fore and aft pitch of the torpedo was combined with depth measurement to become the pendulum-and-hydrostat control. Pressure control provided only a proportional control that, if the control gain was too high, would become unstable and go into overshoot with considerable instability of depth-holding. The pendulum added what is now known as derivative control, which damped the oscillations by detecting the torpedo dive/climb angle and thereby the rate-of-change of depth.[6] This development (named by Whitehead as "The Secret" to give no clue to its action) was around 1868.[7]

It was not until 1922, however, that a formal control law for what we now call PID or three-term control was first developed using theoretical analysis, by Russian American engineer Nicolas Minorsky.[9] Minorsky was researching and designing automatic ship steering for the US Navy and based his analysis on observations of a helmsman. He noted the helmsman steered the ship based not only on the current course error but also on past error, as well as the current rate of change;[10] this was then given a mathematical treatment by Minorsky.[4]His goal was stability, not general control, which simplified the problem significantly. While proportional control provided stability against small disturbances, it was insufficient for dealing with a steady disturbance, notably a stiff gale (due to steady-state error), which required adding the integral term. Finally, the derivative term was added to improve stability and control.

Trials were carried out on the USS New Mexico, with the controllers controlling the angular velocity (not the angle) of the rudder. PI control yielded sustained yaw (angular error) of 2. Adding the D element yielded a yaw error of 1/6, better than most helmsmen could achieve.[11]

The wide use of feedback controllers did not become feasible until the development of wideband high-gain amplifiers to use the concept of negative feedback. This had been developed in telephone engineering electronics by Harold Black in the late 1920s, but not published until 1934.[4] Independently, Clesson E Mason of the Foxboro Company in 1930 invented a wide-band pneumatic controller by combining the nozzle and flapper high-gain pneumatic amplifier, which had been invented in 1914, with negative feedback from the controller output. This dramatically increased the linear range of operation of the nozzle and flapper amplifier, and integral control could also be added by the use of a precision bleed valve and a bellows generating the integral term. The result was the "Stabilog" controller which gave both proportional and integral functions using feedback bellows.[4] The integral term was called Reset.[12] Later the derivative term was added by a further bellows and adjustable orifice.

From about 1932 onwards, the use of wideband pneumatic controllers increased rapidly in a variety of control applications. Air pressure was used for generating the controller output, and also for powering process modulating devices such as diaphragm-operated control valves. They were simple low maintenance devices that operated well in harsh industrial environments and did not present explosion risks in hazardous locations. They were the industry standard for many decades until the advent of discrete electronic controllers and distributed control systems (DCSs).

Electronic analog PID control loops were often found within more complex electronic systems, for example, the head positioning of a disk drive, the power conditioning of a power supply, or even the movement-detection circuit of a modern seismometer. Discrete electronic analog controllers have been largely replaced by digital controllers using microcontrollers or FPGAs to implement PID algorithms. However, discrete analog PID controllers are still used in niche applications requiring high-bandwidth and low-noise performance, such as laser-diode controllers.[13]

The obvious method is proportional control: the motor current is set in proportion to the existing error. However, this method fails if, for instance, the arm has to lift different weights: a greater weight needs a greater force applied for the same error on the down side, but a smaller force if the error is low on the upside. That's where the integral and derivative terms play their part.

An integral term increases action in relation not only to the error but also the time for which it has persisted. So, if the applied force is not enough to bring the error to zero, this force will be increased as time passes. A pure "I" controller could bring the error to zero, but it would be both slow reacting at the start (because the action would be small at the beginning, depending on time to get significant) and brutal at the end (the action increases as long as the error is positive, even if the error has started to approach zero).

Applying too much integral when the error is small and decreasing will lead to overshoot. After overshooting, if the controller were to apply a large correction in the opposite direction and repeatedly overshoot the desired position, the output would oscillate around the setpoint in either a constant, growing, or decaying sinusoid. If the amplitude of the oscillations increases with time, the system is unstable. If they decrease, the system is stable. If the oscillations remain at a constant magnitude, the system is marginally stable.

A derivative term does not consider the magnitude of the error (meaning it cannot bring it to zero: a pure D controller cannot bring the system to its setpoint), but the rate of change of error, trying to bring this rate to zero. It aims at flattening the error trajectory into a horizontal line, damping the force applied, and so reduces overshoot (error on the other side because of too great applied force).

If a controller starts from a stable state with zero error (PV = SP), then further changes by the controller will be in response to changes in other measured or unmeasured inputs to the process that affect the process, and hence the PV. Variables that affect the process other than the MV are known as disturbances. Generally, controllers are used to reject disturbances and to implement setpoint changes. A change in load on the arm constitutes a disturbance to the robot arm control process.


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